Immunology Examination 6 Chapters 11 And 12 Examine Guide
п»їPCB Fall 13 Study guide
1) Which in turn T-cells decline in an HIV patient? What is the significant # of those cells for a move to Supports? a. Substantial reduction in CD4 T cellular material
b. Lower than 200 CD4 T cells per ul.
c. HIV doesn't destroy patient yet cell mediated immunity is definitely compromised and patient may die coming from infection 2) Know gp 120 and 41 and what they do? What is the iniciador polypeptide these are created from? a. One nucleocapsid protein can be described as protease used to cleave gp41 and gp120 envelope glycoproteins from a bigger precursosr healthy proteins. b. cleave a large iniciador polyprotein (protein gp160)
c. binding and fusion of HIV in to target cellular takes place by interaction with 2 membrane layer glycoproteins (GP) i. gp120- binding
2. gp41- blend
iii. main cellular radio is CD4- TH cellular material are the prime targets. 3) What are tat, rev, protease, integrase and reverse transcriptase and what is the function of each? Are of these brought (premade) by the virus in order to infects the cell or are some made after the cell is contaminated? Which have to become made after infection? a. Protease's job is to crack a large precursor polyprotein (protein gp160) i. Gp41 and gp120 package glycoproteins.
w. RNA genome is duplicated using reverse transcriptase (cDNA)
c. Virus-like integrase in that case integrates the cDNA into the host's genome (provirus now formed) g. Provirus uses the website hosts transcriptional and translational equipment to make virus-like proteins and RNA genomes. (Integrase, protease, reverse transcriptase come prepackaged with virus). e. Tat amplifies transcription of virus-like RNA
i. T cell activation induces transcript ion of RNA transcripts, that are spliced to let synthesis of Tat and Rev. 2. Binds to transcription service region of viral mRNA and inhibits transcription kind shutting away. f. Revolution increases travel of singly spliced or unspliced virus-like RNA to cytoplasm. Provides RNA that encodes protein necessary to produce virons. 4) How various RNA elements make up HIV genome? Just how many make up influenza's genome? a. 8 RNA elements make up influenza's genome
m. 1 long strand of RNA makes up HIV genome
5) What is Lymphocyte tropic or macrophage tropic (HIV)? Which will co-receptors are associated with every? Which is associated with early disease and which is associated with late infection? Which is associated with a worse diagnosis? a. Macrophage tropic- HIV variants that spread infection person to person combine CCR5 co-receptor (found upon macrophages, dendritic cells and CD4 T cells) i. These HIV variants require modest levels of the cell-surface CD4 ii. Computer virus first dego?tant dendritic and macrophagesпѓ infect the CD4 Capital t cell populace iii. 50% of casesпѓ viral phenotype switches to lymphocyte-tropic type (late in the infection)пѓ rapid T-cell depend declineпѓ progression to aids. iv. Early inside the disease is M-tropic, combine to CCR5 co-receptor about macrophages, dendritic cells, and TH cells b. Lymphocyte-tropic HIV variants- variants that infect activated CD4 T cells i. Bind to CXCR4 co-receptor
ii. Needs high levels of the cell-surface CD4
iii. Hole to CXCR4 of turned on CD4 Big t cells, quickly destroy A population overdue in disease. iv. More serious prognosis.
6) What is the principal reverse transcriptase inhibitor? What mechanism does it use to prevent HIV? a. AZT (Zidovudine)
b. Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)
7) What 2 things are routinely tested after having a person have been diagnosed with HIV? Hint: you are CD4 To cell count. a. Viral lode
w. CD4 To cell count number
8) What is Neutropenia?
a. Blood bad in neutrophils- lack of macrophage signaling to increase neutrophils, insufficient inflammatory response. 9) How much does HAART indicate and what is used in it? What do anti-viral drugs do/don't do to get the patient? a. Higly Active AntiRetroviral Remedy
b. Use of 3 or even more drugs together
c. Reduces the chances of anyone mutation allowing for uncontrolled expansion d. Antiretroviral drugs
i. Decrease viral lode