Vocabulary and Vernacular

 Language and Dialect Article

Sentiment 2007, Volume. 7, Number 1, 131–146

Copyright 3 years ago by the American Psychological Connection 1528-3542/07/$12. 00 DOI: 10. 1037/1528-3542. six. 1 . 131

Toward a Dialect Theory: Cultural Differences in the Expression and Recognition of Posed Face Expressions Hillary Anger Elfenbein

University of California, Berkeley

Martin Beaupre Вґ

University of Quebec, canada , at Montreal

Manon Levesque Вґ

Omar Bongo School

Ursula Hess

University of Quebec by Montreal

Two studies presented direct support for a recently proposed vernacular theory of communicating feelings, positing that expressive displays show ethnic variations similar to linguistic dialects, thereby decreasing accurate identification by out-group members. In Study one particular, 60 individuals from Quebec and Gabon posed cosmetic expressions. Dialects, in the form of activating different muscle tissue for the same movement, emerged many clearly to get serenity, pity, and disregard and also intended for anger, unhappiness, surprise, and happiness, but is not for fear, disgust, or perhaps embarrassment. In Study two, Quebecois and Gabonese participants judged these kinds of stimuli and stimuli standardized to remove cultural dialects. As predicted, an in-group advantage emerged for nonstandardized expressions just and most strongly for expression with increased regional dialects, according to examine 1 . Keywords: emotion, appearance, recognition, dialects, in-group benefit

An enduring query in the examine of mental facial expressions is the extent to which these expressions happen to be universal (e. g., Darwin, 1872/1965) compared to culturally determined. A considerable human body of study supports the conclusion that the appearance of emotion is largely widespread and biologically evolved, for example , through similarities between human and nonhuman emotional expressions (e. g., Chevalier-Skolnikoff, 1973; Darwin, 1872/1965; Redican, 1982) and the shared recognition of emotional alerts across species boundaries (e. g., Itakura, 1994; Linnankoski, Laasko, & Leinonen, 1994). Across nationalities, classic studies by Ekman, Izard, and their colleagues (Ekman, 1972, 1994; Ekman ou al., 1987; Izard, 1971) have demonstrated that displays of basic feelings are well recognized even across cultures that contain relatively small contact with the other person. This watch contrasts with perspectives observing emotional patterns as determined com-

pletely by social influences in social prescriptions (e. g., Lutz & White, 1986; Wierzbicka, 1994). Many approaches take an intermediate situation (e. g., Ekman, 72; Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, & Nisbett, 1998; Fridlund, 1994; Mesquita, Frijda, & Scherer, 1997; Rosenthal, Hall, DiMatteo, Rogers, & Archer, 1979), acknowledging the two universals and cultural variants in the expression and recognition of feelings. The current content focuses on the type of intermediate perspective: the dialect theory of communicating feeling. Dialect theory proposes arsenic intoxication cultural differences in the use of cues for psychological expression which might be subtle enough to allow correct communication throughout cultural limitations in general, but substantive enough to cause a potential for misunderstanding (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002b, 2003).

Elaborating the Vernacular Theory

In linguistics, dialects are the alternatives or types of a terminology used by different speakers whom are segregated by geographic or cultural boundaries (Francis, 1992; Romaine, 1994). While there is an old saying that a language is simply a vernacular with its individual army and navy (Fasold, 1984)—suggesting a sometimes irrelavent distinction between two concepts—linguists argue that dialects but not different languages should allow basic shared comprehension (O'Grady, Archibald, Aronoff, & Rees-Miller, 2001). Accordingly, the language theory of communicating sentiment argues that the language of emotion can be universal. Much like other dialects, different nationalities can go to town in different dialects, which is the first proposition of dialect theory. The 2nd proposition would be that the...

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Received December 3, 2005 Revision received 06 8, 2006 Accepted 06 19, 06\